Monday, May 25, 2020

A Society Post World War II - 1169 Words

Living in a society post World War II where social revolution is said to be unnecessary, there was solidity on Americans in the 1950s to conform to certain expectations and values. During the peak of the Cold War, any one who did not share the same values would be accused of being a communist. These common values that Americans believed in the 1950s were a liberal consensus that described America as an unflawed society that worked and did not suffer from any major struggles. The liberal consensus was based on the assumption that nationally America was full of hope. It was a period of economic success lasting from 1945 to1965. The certainty infused in America from this concept to fuel economic growth, defend individual rights and establish political equality seems well established yet by 1968 the liberal consensus had fallen apart. With the emergence of the New Left, hatred and disruptive opinions arose towards the government and our pointless participation in Vietnam, exposed major p roblems of the American public toward the liberal consensus, failing it to the point where it shattered. Anti-communism became the language for a new more defiant vision of America. There was a strong influence in building national agreement originated from endless fear of communism in post war American society. Many American feared nuclear warfare and after the age of McCarthyism America tried to completely isolate itself from Russia (Schulman, 6). With the pressures between the free world andShow MoreRelatedPost World War II American Society512 Words   |  2 PagesPost World War II American Society American had been isolationist in keeping the affairs to itself. When the policy of Good Samaritan did not work out as America failed to keep the harmony between Europe countries, it became substantial that external concerns are devastating. Any idea of movement to stop the tyranny in Europe was even opposed strongly as a retaliation response to the failure. Nonetheless, the long tradition of isolationism finally ended when the World War II disrupted. The relinquishmentRead MoreIn The Great Gatsby, a novel written and set during the post-World War II society of the 1920’s,600 Words   |  3 PagesIn The Great Gatsby, a novel written and set during the post-World War II society of the 1920’s, author F. Scott Fitzgerald illustrates what life was like for those thriving to reach the American dream. Economic prosperity appeared open to all and the dream of leading a rich life was within arm’s reach for many. While the Roaring 20’s appear to have been a time of social and economic prosperity, a Marxist interpretation of the time and novel may suggest the opposite. Marxism, or the Marxist approachRead MoreThe Post World War II1128 Words   |  5 PagesAfter World War II ended in 1945, many significant changes to American society began to occur. Some of these major changes helped shape what the U.S. is today and include the Baby boom, mass suburbanization, and mass consumerism. The Post-World War II era is defined by these changes in U.S history and culture. In this Post-World War II era, social conformity became the most ideal way of life. Every citizen wanted the same thing, this is known as the American Dream. The American Dream consistRead MoreMasculinity : Masculinity And Masculinity1850 Words   |  8 PagesFilm-makers have created innovative ways in which femininity and masculinity play a role in society. At the end of World War II, there were many interpretations on what it meant to be a man† most notably for soldiers returning home from the war whom were either unemployed, handicap and/or suffering from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder). Film and television acted as pivotal agents that influenced a change in the way masculinity was defined. They explored social values as they refer to the ideasRead MoreThe Appeal And Effect Of Fantasy Essay1121 Words   |  5 Pagesand Stan Barstow who were referenced as angry young men’. Notably, the writers were mostly young, working class and male, who responded to the disillusionment created by the perceived failure of post war administrations. They considered the labour government had failed to deliver an ega litarian society and allowed the continuation of an entrenched class system. The term ‘angry young man’, was originally coined in 1956, following the opening of John Osbourne’s play ‘Look Back in Anger (Hague, pRead MoreEssay On The Things They Carried1624 Words   |  7 Pagesthat because it came from personal experiences, that this story is more about a part of the author, Tim O’Brien’s personal red flag to modern society ideology of war, since he served in one he didn’t volunteer for (O Brien, 1990). Although this story is fiction, it is still based on Tim O’Brien’s and others like his experience dealing with the stress of war. It tackles many problems, Tim O’Brien wrote â€Å"The Things They Carried† with an open truth, so that the emotion portrayed by each character, thatRead MoreComparing Two Diaries, Donald Vining s A Gay Diary Vol Essay1733 Words   |  7 PagesMartin Duberman’s Gay in the Fifties look into the everyday life of gay males in the post-World War II Era. While World War II increased freedom for men to sexually explore within the male community, post-World War II extended the freedom of exploration but also created a subsequent backlash against homosexual practices. Vining and Duberman’s diaries document an extension of gay freedoms in the post-World War II period. Although Vining and Duberman give contrasting accounts of their lives as gayRead MoreThe Legacy Of Imperialism And Democracy Building After World War II1127 W ords   |  5 Pagesand Democracy Building after World War II Nagata, Japan – Post World War II Japan was made into a protectorate of America after their unconditional surrender. ¹ During the next seven years, Allied powers occupied Japan. After Japan s military forces were demobilized and repatriated, the Occupation, led by General Douglas MacArthur of the U.S. army, turned to the problem of making Japan democratic with the hope that its people would never again be led to fight a war of aggression. Ultimately, inRead MoreBeauvoir s Feminist Beliefs : Simone De Beauvoir924 Words   |  4 Pagesover the world. Although she may not be the extreme feminist that people believe her to be. Beauvoir said many times that she naturally didn’t believe that women were inferior to men, but she also didn’t believe that they were naturally equal either. Beauvoir wrote the book The Second Sex which holds many of her opinions towards feminism and is what many believe started the feminist movement. Many may think that Beauvoir was an extreme feminist trying to get women into ev ery aspect of the world thatRead MoreThe Influence Of World War And World1248 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿The Influence of World War II and World War II WANG Jing MScPP TD2 Abstract: This article talk about how World War â…   and World War â… ¡ impact Europe. Describe it through three aspects of political, economic and cultural. Key words: World War I, World War II ,Europe, History, Culture 1. Introduction World War I and World War II were the war mainly battlefield in Europe but spread to the world ad last for years in history. It has a very profound influence on Europe s economy, political and culture

Thursday, May 14, 2020

A Social Morality Of The Victorian Age - 1355 Words

Oscar Martin Professor Stephen Mendonca English 2323 2 August 2015 A Social Morality The Victorian age ranged from 1830 to 1901, during this time England reached its highest point as a world imperial power. Industrialization and the reign of Queen Victoria (1837 to 1901) played a major role in England’s success. The overwhelming industrialization caused a population boom that changed England’s population from two million to six million people. The abundance of people created new social problems that the leading writers and thinkers would have to face and challenge. Such problems were often targeted towards the lower class which faced harsh working conditions, discrimination and other factors that would affect the lives of these people negatively. Social and economic troubles by industrialization were noticed at the start of the era, it went from â€Å"a period of prosperity from 1832 to 1836, a crash in 1837, followed by a series of bad harvests, produced a period of unemployment, desperate poverty, and rioting† (Greenblatt 1022 ). Industrialization came with its positive side as well; writers were able to publish their works faster and spread awareness to the public with the prominence of periodical press. The Victorian age created social commentators such as Charles Dickens, social challengers like George Eliot, and social thinkers similar to John Ruskin to change their world. Charles Dickens experienced the ugly side of the Industrial Revolution in England, which led him toShow MoreRelatedThe Victorians Concern With Morality1180 Words   |  5 PagesThe Victorians’ Concern with Morality â€Å"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Charles Dickens). This quote helps to sum up the Victorian Era. The Victorian Era is understood to have existed during the rule of Queen Victoria between 1837 to 1901. It was thought to be an exciting period that saw various literary schools and artistic styles along with social and politicalRead MoreThe Importance of Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde1300 Words   |  5 Pageswas written in the Victorian Age of England. During this time morality was connected with sexual restraint and strict codes of conduct in public. This play hilariously critiques Victorian moral and social values while the characters in the play try to figure out the meaning of â€Å"earnestness†. Wilde uses humor and irony to publicly ridicule the self-aggrandizing attitude of the Victorian upper classes, as well as to expose their duplicity and hypocrisy in regards to their social behaviors. The charactersRead MoreSpring Awakening By Frank Wedekind Essay982 Words   |  4 PagesWedekind, pushed the boundaries of the strongly moralistic society of the Victorian age. It was written in 1891, but because of its explicitness, it was not performed until more than a decade later, in 1906. One controversial aspect that is detailed in the play is the unwanted pregnancy of the character Wendla Bergmann. Wedekind s description of this topic illuminates the destructiveness of the Victorian age, which believed in morality and virtuosity above all else. The complete lack of sexual educationRead MoreDuring The Mid.-Nineteenth Century, Victorian England Was1355 Words   |  6 PagesDuring the Mid.-nineteenth century, Victorian England was divided into distinct social classes. The three social classes included the working, middle, and upper leisure class. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, the working class became very isolated from the leisure class and often had low paying jobs s uch as a blacksmith, tradesman, and farmer. The wealthy ladies and gentlemen of the leisure class lacked awareness that their frivolous lifestyle was built on the laborious work of the workingRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1438 Words   |  6 Pagesunreliably explanation on the dramatic farce genre for Wilde. This play is a comedy of manner during the Victorian Age. The Victorian Age was a period of peace and sensibility. The Importance of Being Earnest was an early trial in Victorian melodrama. This play was particularly known as a satire with a touch of sentimental comedy. This play was known for its worldly deliberately farce. The Victorian society dealt with brittle comedy which happened to be one of Wilde’s downfalls. Due to the fact thatRead MoreCarmen, Madness, And Sexuality947 Words   |  4 Pagesis why she is portrayed in that way. One of the sad realities of the Victorian time period was the choice to view deviant behavior as proof of insa nity. Tania Woods, in her article that covers several different works and how they view female madness, remarks that Victorian age literature defines madness in an animalistic way, which reflects the â€Å"concept of insanity as a deviation from human rationality† (5). In the Victorian age, hysteria, a unique disease to females, was gaining credibility, andRead MoreThe Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde1407 Words   |  6 Pageswhere marriage in Victorian society is widely contradicted as a ‘very pleasant state,’ instead using various comedic devises, such as puns, double entendres and inversions to mock its virtue and morality. Wilde creates comedy through the presentation of Victorian views on the functionality of marriage, ridiculing it as a social tool. The fact that Victorian society does not value the ‘love’ and romance of marriage is witnessed from the exposition, where Algernon’s mockery of social constraints is shownRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1086 Words   |  5 Pagesa fascinating Oscar Wilde reveals a story of social class and hierarchy during the roaring Victorian time period (1837-1901). Focusing his writing on the social classes, the play becomes comical when he exposes the flaws held by the upper class during this time. Wilde saw earnestness as being a key ideal in Victorian culture for much of British society struck Wilde as dry, stern, conservative, and so â€Å"earnestly† concerned with the maintenance of social norms and the status quo that it had becomeRead MoreVictorian Values in Jane Eyre Essay2309 Words   |  10 Pages1) The Vi ctorian Age: Social Background There are tow dates for the beginning of the Victorian Age in England: The first date is 1837, when the Queen Victory accessed to the British throne. However the most accepted date as the start of the Victorian Age is 1832, date of the First Reform Bill. This reform allowed the entrance of urban bourgeoisie or middle-class in the Parliament because the requirements for voting were simplified; there was an increasing number of population with the rightRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By The Victorian Era1502 Words   |  7 PagesThe Importance of Being Earnest was written in the Victorian Era when many of the â€Å"religious, social, political, and economic structures were experiencing change† (Joshi). Many writers such as Oscar Wilde criticized Victorian morality and snobby social customs in their writing (Peltason). In his play, Wilde uses Algernon Moncrieff, a wealthy and witty gentleman with no morals, to satirize Victorian values and customs. The play opens with Algernon receiving Jack, or John, Worthing, his friend and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Study On Preference Of Youth About Food - 1325 Words

A Research Proposal On A Study on Preference of Youth about food in LPU Submitted to Lovely Professional University In partial fulfillments of the award degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS Submitted By- Submitted to- Manish Kashyap Dr.Anand Thakur Harshit Srvastava Associate Professor Mridul Kr. Pandey Amit Kr.Gauarv Faculty of Business Applied Arts Lovely Professional University CONTENTS S.NO TOPIC PAGE 1. Introduction 3 2. Background 3-4 3. Structure 4 4. Current scenario of Campus Cafe 5-7 5. SWOT Analysis 8 6. Literature Review 9-10 7. Research Gap 11 8. Objective of the Study 12 9. Proposed Research Methodology 12-13 10. Bibliography 14 Introduction Now a days people prefer to eat foods of their taste at their respective preferable places only. They want to grab foods from the stores which are situated near to home/working places. They don’t to prefer to walk a long to order foods. This is mostly done by large community of our country i.e. YOUTH .Similarly, this project is about the research on Preference of youth about foods in Campus Cafà ©. How Departmental stores, Kiosk affected the sales of Campus Cafà © and no of customers reduced to come for different occasions for ex:- birthday, anniversary etc. Background Campus Cafà © is a eating joint in Lpu which offers delicious food, superior services with innovative practices. They provide multi-cuisine menus ranging from Indian toShow MoreRelatedObesity : Obesity And Obesity1637 Words   |  7 Pagescontributing factors to this increase in obese youths. A possible contributing factor is food advertisements that contain poor-nutrient food and are targeted at children. Children and adolescents are constantly exposed to various advertisements on a daily basis. Many studies have suggested that there would be an overall reduction in obesity and overweight rates with the ban or reduction of nutrient-poor food advertisements. The combination of advertisements of poor food choices, with increased technology useRead MoreStudent Preferences Regarding Fast Food1681 Words   |  7 Pagesstudent preferences regarding fast food. We have conducted a survey at a well-known college in the Klang Valley to find out students preferences regarding fas t food. The survey was conducted for about 1 week. 50 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed with 24 female and 26 male A related literature review showed that most of the younger respondents prefer Domino’s for home orders followed by others fast food outlet in India 2007. Their preference to visit a particular fast food outletRead MoreAdvertising to Children Must Be Banned957 Words   |  4 Pagesrealize that back then I was targeted by big companies to beg my parents for things that I didn’t need or that wasn’t good for me in order to make money. Advertising today is affecting the health of today’s children because they eat the unhealthy foods advertised to them on: television, the internet, and even at school. Therefore, an impassioned discussion of possible solutions has been brewing. Advertising is the paid, impersonal, one-way marketing of persuasive information from an identified sponsorRead MoreIs School Nutrition A Contributor? Childhood Obesity?1619 Words   |  7 PagesStatus: Any †¢ Nutrition-Related Problem or Condition: Obese or overweight and consuming at least lunch in a school setting. †¢ Study Design Preference: Cross-sectional studies, large randomized observational studies, time series studies. †¢ Size of Study Groups: sample size must include at least three elementary, middle, or high schools that serve lunch meals to students. †¢ Study Drop-Out Rate: 30% †¢ Year Range: 2004-2014 †¢ Authorship: †¢ Language: articles published in English Exclusion Criteria Read MoreFast Food Industry Research Proposal1593 Words   |  7 PagesResearch Proposal (Fast Food Industry) To study the attitude towards consumption of healthy food within the fast food industry Background We are a marketing research team of a fast food chain store. With increasing awareness about healthy food among the masses and with consumer preferences changing towards healthy food, we intend to launch a health food segment to cater to this need of the customers. We are also concerned about the pricing of the product that whether it should be priced same asRead MoreSocial And Ecological Model Of Public Health1480 Words   |  6 Pagesphysical, emotional, and cognitive begin to change. It is the period, where they are more easily influenced, more exposed and more curious about different activities. It is the transition from childhood to adulthood, and it is when behaviors can impact one’s long-range health implications (Coreil, 2010). When applying the social/ecological models to the study of adolescent health, it is important to focus on the micro and macro level. We tend to observe or see behaviors at a proximate or intermediateRead MoreFast-Food Advertising Causes Obesi ty Essay1395 Words   |  6 Pagesconcern that youth or children who eat from fast food restaurants have a big risk for becoming overweight. Some research shows that greater familiarity with fast food advertising on television is associated with obesity in young people (Pediatric Academic Societies parag.1). It is known that these children and adolescents are being extremely exposed to fast food advertising including the internet, social media, and particularly on television. The marketer and owners of these fast food restaurantsRead MoreThe Effects Of Obesity On Children And Adults1462 Words   |  6 Pagesnormal or healthy weight for his or her age and height. The main causes of excess weight in youth are similar to those in adults, including individual causes such as behavior and genetics. Different behaviors include dietary patterns, medication use, physical inactivity, and other exposures. Additional contributing factors in society include the food and physical activity envir onment, education and skills, and food marketing and promotion. Childhood obesity is a significant health problem in the UnitedRead MoreChildren s Purchasing Decisions Are Affected By The Persuasive Nature1496 Words   |  6 PagesNow try asking that same child about any character that is associated with any major brand of cereal and I think you will probably be impressed by the knowledge they have on the subject. One would argue that is because they may love the cereal but I think it has more to do with the effectiveness of advertising. There was a study published recently on how familiar characters influence children’s judgements about information and products. It was a study done on 4 year olds and how theyRead MoreEffects Of Obesity And The Media1396 Words   |  6 Pagesgetting the right amount of physical activity. These aspects definitively lead to obesity and ultimately the negative feedback and oppression and discrimination from society. Society has been preoccupied about how people look for decades. While a society we are becoming heavier, our preferences about body image have become thinner. As a matter of fact, perceptions of body image are shaped from a sociocultural perspective from early childhood. Research has shown that sociocultural factors such as their

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Resistance to change free essay sample

Resistance to change has been renowned as an organizational challenge; however, a comprehensive understanding of the different ways that resistance can be manifested is commonly practiced and highly beneficial to companies. A U. S. mining company, Ajax Minerals realized just how beneficial it is to understand the components of how changes affect all branches of their company. Ajax Minerals recognized their organization was operating at full capacity and in the next couple years were going to have major competitive threats from another company. If the matters of the future  challenges that Ajax Minerals were anticipating werent addressed and handled appropriately, the organization would be expecting to experience grave danger. What it all boils down to are the issues concerning how Ajax Mineral organization would react regarding resistance of changes that would ensure competitiveness and livelihood for the company. If this subject matter about how employees and management adapt to change werent predicted and then addressed, Ajax Minerals future looked bleak. Scott and Jaffe (1988) describe the process as consisting of four phases, namely: initial denial, resistance, gradual exploration, and eventual commitment. Resistance is a natural and normal response to change because change often involves going from the known to the unknown (Coghlan, 1993; Steinburg, 1992; Myers and Robbins, 1991; Nadler, 1981; Zaltman and Duncan, 1977). Not only do individuals experience change in different ways (Carnall, 1986), they also differ in their ability and willingness to adapt to change (Darling, 1993). This paper investigates whether a relationship exists between an individuals cognitive and affective processes and their willingness to adapt to major organizational change. This topic is important because the failure of many corporate change programs is often directly attributable to employee resistance (Maurer, 1997; Spiker and Lesser, 1995; Regar et al. , 1994; Martin, 1975). For example, a longitudinal study of 500 large organizations found employee resistance was the most frequently cited problem encountered by management when implementing change (Waldersee and Griffiths, 1997). More than half the organizations in that survey experienced difficulties with employee resistance. Successfully managing resistance is a major challenge for change initiators and is arguably of greater importance than any other aspect of the change process (OConnor, 1993). Management usually focuses on the technical elements of change with a tendency to neglect the equally important human element which is often crucial to the successful implementation of change The research register for this journal is available at http://www. mcbup. com/research_registers Abstract Most previous studies of organizational change and resistance take an organizational perspective as opposed to an individual perspective. This paper investigates the relationship between irrational ideas, emotion and resistance to change. Nine organizations implementing major change were surveyed providing data from 615 respondents. The analysis showed that irrational ideas are positively correlated with behavioural intentions to resist change. Irrational ideas and emotion together explain 44 percent of the variance in intentions to resist. Also outlines an intervention strategy to guide management in developing a method for approaching resistance when implementing major change. (Levine, 1997; Huston, 1992; Steier, 1989; Arendt et al. , 1995; Tessler, 1989; New and Singer, 1983). As Nord and Jermier (1994) express it, resistance is resisted rather than being purposively managed. Therefore, in order to successfully lead an organization through major change it is important for management to balance both human and organization needs (Spiker and Lesser, 1995; Ackerman, 1986). Organizational change is driven by personal change (Band, 1995; Steinburg, 1992; Dunphy and Dick, 1989). Individual change is needed in order for organizational change to succeed (Evans, 1994). This paper reports on a study that aimed to identify, measure and evaluate how human elements including cognitive and affective processes are associated with an individuals level of resistance to organizational change. Conceptual framework The conceptual model developed for this paper is illustrated in Figure. It provides a framework for empirical testing and consists of four constructs (in bold type) namely perception, cognitions, affect and resistance. The operationalized variable for each construct is also included in the model (in italic type). Figure 1 is an illustration of human processes described in the literature. For example, Schlesinger (1982) in his psychoanalytic paper entitled Resistance as process, outlines classical theory favouring the sequence: interpretation, cognition, affect and action. Ellis and Harper (1975) state that humans have four basic processes, namely, to erceive or sense, to reason or think, to feel or emote, and to move or act.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Tigers Essays - Tigers, Tiger, Bengal Tiger, Siberian Tiger

Tigers Tigers are descended from civet-like animals called niacis that lived during the age of the dinosaurs about 60 million years ago (Dang, 1994). These small mammals, with long bodies and short flexible limbs, evolved over millions of years into several hundred different species, including cats, bears, dogs and weasels. About 37 cat species exist today (Dang, 1994). Tigers evolved in eastern Asia , but it is not exact. Sabre-tooth tigers are not the ancestors of today's tigers. In fact, sabre-tooth tigers belonged to a separate branch of cat evolution which became extinct many millions of years ago. The Siberian or Amur tiger lives primarily in eastern Russia, and a few are found in northeastern China and northern North Korea. It is estimated that 437-506 Siberian tigers still exist in the wild (Tilson ,1995). About 490 captive Siberian tigers a re managed in zoo conservation programs (Tilson, 1995). The South China tiger is the most critically endnagered of all tiger subspecies. They are found in central and eastern China. It is estimated that only 20-30 South China tigers are left in the wild (Dang ,1994). Currently 48 South China tigers live in 19 zoos, all in China (Dang ,1994). The distribution of the Indochinese tiger is centered in Thailand, and is found in Myanmar, southern China, CAnbodia, Laos, Vietnam, and penisular Malaysia. About 1,180- 1,790 Indochines tigers are left in the wild and about 60 live in zoos (Tilson, 1995). Bengal tigers live in India, and some range through Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Myanmar. The estimated wild population is approzimately 3,060- 4,735 tigers, with about 333 in captivity, primarily in zoos in India (Dang, 1994). White tigers are just white-colored Bengal tigers. They ae not a separate subspecies of tiger, and they are no albinos. They have blue eyes, a pink nose, and creamy white fur with chocolate colored striipes, White tigers are only born when two tigers that both carry the unusual gene for white coloring mate, Wild white tigers are very rare, and todayt they can only be seen in zoos. The Sumatrain tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. About 400-500 wild Sumatran tigers are believed to exist, primarily inthe island's five national parks (Dang, 1994). Another 235 Simatran tigers live in zoos around the world (Dang, 1994). Three tiger subspecies have been considered to become extinct in the past 70 years (Tilson ,1994). The Caspian tiger, known as the Panthera tigris virgata, once ranged in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia, and Central Asiatic area of Russia and probably went extinct in the 1950's (Tilson, 1995). The Javan tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, formerly ranged on the Indonesian island of Java and was last seen in 1972 (Tilson, 1995). The Bali tiger, Panthera tigris balica, once lived on Bali, where the last tiger was believed to have been killed in 1937 (Tilson, 1995). Tigers have social behavior. Adult tigers are solitary animal that establish their territories in areas with enough prey, cover and water to support them. The hardship of loating prey in tiger habitat makes it more efficient for tigers to hunt alone. As a result, they do not tend to form social groups like lions. A female tiger and her cubs are the exception to this, and will form a family group for 2 to 3 years, until the cubs are able to fend for themselves (Dang ,1994). The territory of a tiger usually ranges in size from about 10 to 30 square miles, although the territory of a Siberian tiger may be as large as 120 square miles (Tilson, 1995). Both male and female tigers spray bushes and trees along their route with amixture of urine and scent gland secretions. This is a way of declaring their territory. They also leave marks on trees, and urinate or leave droppongs in prominent places. Female tigers reach maturity when they area bout 3 years old and males reach it when they are a year or so later (Dang, 1994). In temperate climates, a tigress comes into heat only seasonally , but in tropical climates, she may come int heat throughtout the year. She signals her readiness with scent marking and locating roars. The brief act of copulaiton occurs continually for a five day period. Tigers

Monday, March 9, 2020

Knowledge Management (KM) in Healthcare Systems The WritePass Journal

Knowledge Management (KM) in Healthcare Systems REFERANCES Knowledge Management (KM) in Healthcare Systems INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF KM SWOT ANALYSISKEY ISSUE OF REDDIX HOSPITALSUGGEST CHANGE Learning CultureKey Management processesTools and TechniquesRESOURCESOrganizational Fit2nd Learning outcome:SCOPE OF CHANGE AND VISIONRESISTANCEOPTIONAL APPRAISALCOMMUNICATION TO STAKEHOLDERFINALIZE CHANGE PLANIMPLEMENTING KM AT REDDIX  ObjectivesStrategic model to achieve these objectives  Patient Admission ProcessCommunication of Patient Admission DataSupporting Diagnostic and Therapeutic SciencesPoint-of-Care Data EntryEvaluation: Automated Hospital Information System ArchitectureImplement a Culture change policyThe Intervention Change ModelThe Strategic Change ModelImproved Team CommunicationReduced Problem Solving TimeImproved Patient CareREFERANCESRelated INTRODUCTION KM is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, managing, and sharing all of an enterprise’s information assets, including database, documents, policies and procedures, as well as unarticulated expertise and experience resident in individual workers (Wickramasinghe, 2003). There are many dimensions around which knowledge can be characterized such as storage media, accessibility, typology and hierarchy. HISTORY OF KM Knowledge Management (KM) is an essential tool in today’s emerging healthcare system. Hospitals that seek to deploy KM systems need to understand the human element in the process. Earlier, success factors were only restricted to a few healthcare variables such as patient care and cost, but over the years, technology (both clinical and administrative) has evolved as a differentiating variable, thus redefining the doctrines of competition and the administration of healthcare treatments. One of the key objectives of a KM system is to insulate a hospital’s intellectual knowledge from degeneration (Elliot, 2000). The UK public sector now typically spends an estimated  £2 billion per annum on IT, equating to around 1% of the public purse (Holmes Poulymenakou, 1995), while the NHS spends around  £220 million annually on IT in hospitals (Audit Commission, 1995). Information technology is transforming the healthcare environment in ways that go beyond simple consumer health information Web sites (Hoagland, 1997). SWOT ANALYSIS Various Strengths of such organizational structure are: There is a strong control over the employees with clearly defined rules and regulations. The system is highly centralized because of which various decisions can be monitored efficientley.. There is standardization in the organization and everyone is following same procedures and thus there is no scope for any confusion. Weaknesses of bureaucratic form of organizations: The biggest weakness of such form of organization is that there is too much control leading to a lack of innovation initiatives and thus making the jobs dull and boring. Also, this has an adverse impact on the level of morale of employees which is clearly seen in case of Reddix trust hospital. Another weakness is that though decisions can be efficiently monitored it takes a lot of time to take any decision as there are only few people in whose hands such a power rests. In case this group of people is overloaded decision making will become too slow. The chain of communication is too long which generally leads to distortion of the message Bureaucracy itself encourages political behavior in the organization and people try to use wrong means to go up the hierarchy. KEY ISSUE OF REDDIX HOSPITAL Reddix Hospital does have an information system in place. It comprises of Radiology Information System, Patient Administration System, Laboratory Information System and Clinical Patient Record System, Pharmacy Systems and Nursing System. But there is a lack of interoperability between these systems and there is no clinical information governance. Further due to an inefficient Hospital Information System patient files are not available to the concerned caregivers when required. These caretakers are not aware of patients’ medical history and if some wrong medicines are given patients suffer from severe reactions. According to NHS performance report 60% of patients were suffering from life-threatening consequences of improper care. Furthermore nurses and caregivers are not aware of the best practices. Also Reddix is using a centralized computer architecture where softwares being used are 30-40 years old. Such outdated softwares have limited interfaces with other healthcare information systems. Moreover they did not have the ability to interconnect with other desktop applications. In most of the NHS hospitals a distributed form of computer architecture is followed. Moreover Reddix does not use a secure information security mechanism which is again an important point of consideration. Due to above reasons and to ensure an efficient and innovative working of Reddix Hospital Trust it was decided to adopt a proper Knowledge Management System at Reddix. Thus, a combination of all the three systems may be used to address the requirements of various stakeholders to the KM project. SUGGEST CHANGE Reddix can move to divisional form of organization as it will be easy to handle the complexities associated with a complex nature of hospital functions and divisions. In order to promote learning and development in the organization Reddix can use following methods: Learning Culture Reddix need to develop a learning culture in the organization. There should be a free flow of information within the organization. People should be able to share and exchange information and knowledge without any barriers. Senior team should people at all levels to learn regularly and learning should also be rewarded. Key Management processes Learning and development can be fostered through proper capability planning, reinforcing teams, developing values and vision for such teams and maintaining an efficient performance reward system. Tools and Techniques Open communication, mentoring and supporting colleagues, making people learn to see team and organizational goals as same are some tools to maintain learning in the organization. Thus, from above mentioned process Reddix can ensure learning and development of its staff so as to implement KM in an efficient manner. RESOURCES These organizations decentralize decision making to the business units, thereby allowing the corporate office to concentrate its focus on corporate strategy, capital allocation, and monitoring of the operational and strategic performance of business units. This creates the advantage of increasing accountability, given that common/comparable measures can be established across different divisions and internal competition for available capital can be stimulated. Along with its various merits this system may bring about certain disadvantages for Reddix Trust Hospital: First, there is the problem of duplication of services- that is, redundant marketing, manufacturing, and other functional services that are established within each unit. Costs can escalate when functions are repeated in multiple areas. Corporate executives in decentralized organizations can too easily distance themselves from their divisional operations and thus find that they lack the needed insights and skills to understand their disparate businesses. Corporate leaders can also focus so much on capital allocation and corporate strategy (e.g., mergers, divestitures, acquisitions) that they lose touch with the operational side of their businesses. Organizational Fit 2nd Learning outcome: SCOPE OF CHANGE AND VISION Healthcare organizations are facing many challenges in the 21st Century due to changes taking place in global healthcare systems. Spiraling costs, financial constraints, increased emphasis on accountability and transparency, changes in education, growing complexities of biomedical research, new partnerships in healthcare and great advances in IT suggest that a predominant paradigm shift is occurring. This shift is necessitating a focus on interaction, collaboration and increased sharing of information and knowledge which is in turn leading healthcare organizations to embrace the techniques of Knowledge Management (KM) in order to create and sustain optimal healthcare outcomes. This report describes the importance of using Information Technology knowledge management systems for healthcare organizations and provides an overview of knowledge management technologies and tools that may be used by healthcare organizations with a special focus on Reddix Hospital Trust. RESISTANCE Reddix hospital is overloaded with work. Doctors are working for double the stipulated time. The information system at Reddix is centralized and nurses and caretakers have no direct and easy access to patient records. Also there is low level of morale, lack of motivation, lack of innovation and high rate of absenteeism and staff turnover and also high rate of sickness among hospital staff. All these factors prove that Reddix Hospital Trust is following a bureaucratic form of organization. The bureaucratic hierarchy is by far the most abundant organization form as we start the new millennium. They are everywhere all of the time and it is hard to envision a world without them, or indeed any other kind of organization form that will work as well. Elliott Jaques (1989, 1990), firmly believed that the bureaucratic hierarchy’s only problem is that it still lacks complete perfection, and Hammer and Champy (1993), asserted that bureaucracy is a glue that holds organizations together. OPTIONAL APPRAISAL Reddix can use intranet to make the stakeholders properly understand what is KM and how it can enable them to work efficiently. A dedicated blog can be created where staff can exchange their understanding of the concept and that of project a whole and can learn through shared experiences. Also it will help them in understanding the flow of information within the organization and how to use the new method efficiently. A proper detailed view of the new system along with some relevant examples can be easily provided on the portal which will help in a detailed understanding of the concept. However in this system people will learn as per their understanding levels. In case there is some misunderstanding on their part it cannot be cleared and people will start working on their individual assumptions about the concept and project. This may lead to conflict and disputes while implementing the concept. Justify your planned changes? COMMUNICATION TO STAKEHOLDER The project of Knowledge Management affects a number of people related with the organization. These are- doctors, nurses, administrative staff, etc. All these people need to be properly aware of the need of KM in their organization and also how they will be benefited from such a change in the organization. The success of any KM program depends upon the clear understanding of concepts by these stakeholders. FINALIZE CHANGE PLAN Continuous use of knowledge leads to generation of new ideas which can be recorded in the system and again and again use of such idea further leads to generation of new ideas. Thus, KM will give a scope of innovation to hospital staff. Proper storage and availability of information about a patient’s health will allow the team of doctors to communicate easily and take decisions on further treatment in an efficient manner. Also the medication prescribed to patient, allergic records, surgery records, etc are readily available which can form the basis of further treatment. Another important system is to develop a program for providing training with regard to use of new system. Such programs or training workshops should be designed in a manner that each and every person in the organization is properly aware about his/her role in KM and can also help his/her subordinates in achieving efficiency through such a system. This system is good for imparting knowledge about the concept but lack practical approach. For proper implementation of the concept such workshops should be continued for some time after the introduction of KM in the hospital. It will help the staff to get real time experience of getting trained while working. Instant flow of information and improved communication leads to quick decision making. Doctors can communicate with each other regarding the treatment of some critical patient, refer to the case history available at a single place and take decision in a short period of time Reddix can take the groups of staff for some tours to other hospitals using Knowledge management effectively. This will help the staff in getting a real-world idea about use and benefits of KM. This will act as a catalyst to prepare them for them for the next stages of the project. However, this method does not ensure a deep understanding of the concept as methodology of implementing KM varies from organization to organization. IMPLEMENTING KM AT REDDIX Various steps involved in implementation of KM program at Reddix Trust Hospital are discussed as follows:   Objectives Reddix need to implement a KM program so as to improve patient care, reduce accidents, increase the morale level of the hospital staff, efficient decision making and improve the flow of information within the organization. Strategic model to achieve these objectives The achievement of an efficient KM program depends upon the designing of an efficient Application Architecture. The key features of such an architecture or model is discussed as follows:   Patient Admission Process First step in implementing Knowledge Management in Reddix is the automation of Hospital administration and registration systems that are used to â€Å"register† patients into the hospital. A powerful first point-of-contact (point-of-sale) approach for the hospital can be used in the form of embedded-chip smart cards. These cards are capable of holding compact patient medical record and biometrics identifiers. This would enable quick, automated registration and admitting, as well as information for health and health insurance purposes such as eligibility, referral, and pharmacy approval. Communication of Patient Admission Data Next is to automate the data associated with the admission of a patient which is of a relatively generic nature. Made up of standard patient demographic data, insurance particulars, and the patient’s location (department, room number, and bed), the information associated with the event of admitting a patient is of interest to most if not all of the other information systems used in the hospital. In an e-hospital, this patient information is communicated with all other applications in the hospital. Hospitals organize themselves around specialized diagnostic methods, focused medical interventions, and various therapeutic care strategies. Supporting Diagnostic and Therapeutic Sciences According to Becich (2000), it is estimated that 50% to 70% of the major decisions that affect patients are based on information available from clinical pathology (laboratory tests) and anatomical pathology (tissue samples). Thus it is necessary to computerize laboratories, radiology, cardiovascular laboratories, nuclear medicine, etc. For Example: The classical x-ray film processing has been replaced with â€Å"film-less† imaging processes that produce digital images in many hospitals worldwide. Hospital Pharmacy also need to be right from automated drug dispensing devices to robotic workstations used to package and barcode patient medication. Point-of-Care Data Entry Further there is a need to automate the point-of-care data. Procedures (e.g., surgeries, laboratory tests, or x-rays) can be scheduled in an enterprise scheduling system to better allocate many types of resources. Integration between the admitting and orders systems makes the process more efficient and accurate. These orders can be communicated to the appropriate clinical system (e.g., radiology or laboratory) electronically if interfaced or integrated with the order management system. Once an order is placed in a clinical system, the process of performing the ordered diagnostic test or delivering the specified medication or service begins. If the physician could consistently digitize these â€Å"paper instructions,† the improvements in the accuracy, the timeliness, and the appropriateness of patient care would be staggering. In addition, the patient vital sign data (e.g., blood pressure, fluid input and output, temperatures) are written on the patient’s chart. Technolo gy can be used to convert physician voice dictations to digital text (typically the patient’s admitting history and physical and the discharge plan and diagnosis). Evaluation:       Automated Hospital Information System Architecture [Adapted from Mon and Nunn (1999)] Implement a Culture change policy Next is to develop a proper healthy environment for KM. Staff needs to be made aware and trained about the concept of KM and how that is beneficial for different levels of the organization. People should be able to adapt to such a change being introduced in the organization. Such an acceptance will ensure the efficient implementation of KM program. Change Models Here we will discuss two change models which can be applied to Reddix Hospital. The Intervention Change Model The Strategic Change Process Model The Intervention Change Model This model developed by Robbie Paton and Jim MacCalman (2006), is based on the idea of an open system approach which view an organization as a series of interlinked and interdependent elements and components of systems and subsystems. Reddix Hospital is an organization that consists of several elements like that of consultation, pharmacy, patient care, nursing, specialized treatment, clinical information, etc. As per the intervention model firstly the problem is to be identified, which is the lack of a proper information system in the hospital. Next is to analyze and select the change options available which is determined as the need of KM in Reddix. Finally this KM is to be applied at every level and every department and element of Reddix. These functions or elements are interlinked and a change in one will mean a change in all the elements. The Strategic Change Model This model developed by Phil Beaumont complements the implementation stage of the intervention model. This model is also required to be applied at Reddix. It aims at making the staff understand the need for change in the organization. It takes the form of a story-telling which managers often use to promote change. At the start of this process senior managers at Reddix will initiate communication to engage employees in the change process. Next will be focusing on claims, evidence, theories of cause and effect to help employees understand what the need is and how the change will benefit them. Further performance conversation will take place to generate action in order to initiate change and finally closure conversations will be there to signify the successful completion of the change process. Such a process will help the staff of Reddix to grasp each and every part of KM program efficiently so as to use it effectively in their future course of action. Improved Team Communication Proper storage and availability of information about a patient’s health will allow the team of doctors to communicate easily and take decisions on further treatment in an efficient manner. Also the medication prescribed to patient, allergic records, surgery records, etc are readily available which can form the basis of further treatment. Reduced Problem Solving Time Instant flow of information and improved communication leads to quick decision making. Doctors can communicate with each other regarding the treatment of some critical patient, refer to the case history available at a single place and take decision in a short period of time Improved Patient Care An efficient KM system will reduce the burden of knowledge on the staff. They can concentrate on their work. Specialists can be consulted easily and decisions can be taken efficiently. This will improve the condition of patient care in Reddix. REFERANCES Groff, Todd. R. (2003), Introduction to knowledge Management: KM in Business, Butterworth-Heinemann Gay, Paul du (2003), The Values of Bureaucracy, Oxford University Press. Jennex, Murray E (2005), Case Studies in Knowledge Management, IGI Global Miner, John B (2006), Organizational Behavior 2: Essential Theories of Process and Structure, M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Martin, Graeme (2006), Managing People and Organizations in Changing Context, Butterworth-Heinemann. Schwartz, David G.(2006), Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, IGI publishing. Wickramasinghe(2005), Creating Knowledge-Based Healthcare Organizations, IGI Global. Wickramasinghe, Nilmini( 2007), Knowledge-Based Enterprise: Theories and Fundamentals, IGI Publishing

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Women in American culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Women in American culture - Essay Example The various generations of women that persisted at the time began to see a gap because younger women were full of fresh energy and good vibes and wanted independence from the clutches of the patriarchal society that they lived within. In short, women yearned for a personal identity of their own and were finally able to get it. They began to have successful careers as well as flourishing families, in tune with the capitalistic spirit of the era. The First World War had allowed women to enter the industrial field and begin working in different factories and producing wartime goods. This change also saw a change in fashion because women took to wearing shorter, more comfortable and manly clothes. They adorned scarves, trousers and blouses and gave away their tight fitting corsets and long flowing gowns because they hampered work and productivity. At this time, designers like Coco Chanel began to pave the way for a new look for women; this soon became a part of a new movement as women we re interested in looking pretty, but not becoming slaves to their male counterparts at the same time. They took to fashion like a moth to a flame as they began to dress themselves in a very casual yet independent manner in order to make themselves feel good.Young women began to take claim of their own bodies and became part of the sexual liberation movement. They began to read secretly and understand the works of authors like Freud and Ellen Key. This helped to spark their sexual thoughts and provided them with a new meaning to life. They began to fight for their right to education and began taking on activities like dance, drama and music. Women began attending dance clubs and taking music as a career and they taught the world that these were not merely frivolities but beautiful talents that could be harnessed and shown to the world. (Woloch, Nancy.) Thus, in the ways mentioned above, most women changed as time changed and gained their own identity; it was not easy for them to break away from their husbands, fathers and brothers however they knew they had to, and they did it. They became a part of the changing pop culture that persisted in America at the time and gave something to their future generations to look forward to. The role of women went from simply nurturing children at home to being a part of music, movies, dance and fashion. As time passed women began to perfect other sources of life and took to arts which included things ranging from